Research papers cultural background summary
Ankara's Grand National Assembly building — manifested the spirit of National Socialist architecture. In the area of housing, a "Republican Bourgeoisie" consisting of highly paid military and civilian officials played an important role in the acceptance of modern architecture. Western buildings with indoor plumbing and electricity fit their search for a contemporary lifestyle without ties to the past. Its site plans were typified by functional geometric elements, and its building facades employed grid systems.
The Istanbul Hilton Hotel became an influential and highly copied example of this style. In the s, the Bauhaus school with its emphasis on mass production influenced the construction of middle-class urban housing in Ankara and some other cities. Turkey's first skyscraper, a commercial office building, was constructed in in Ankara. Since that time, modern skyscrapers and high-rise government, commercial, and apartment buildings have transformed most major cities.
Since the s, modern urban centers have been ringed by expanding squatter settlements gecekondus of substandard housing constructed quickly by peasants from rural areas. Today between 50 and 60 percent of Turkey's urban population consists of gecekondu residents.
Housing styles in small towns and villages are determined by tradition, family structure, environment, local building materials, and income. There is considerable variety in external appearance by region.
Many traditional homes also have an enclosed garden or courtyard where females can perform some of their domestic duties and chat with neighbors. In small towns and villages, males dominate public space while females dominate the private space of the home. In the mosque, females pray in an area apart from and outside the view of males. It is not uncommon for movie theaters, restaurants, beaches, and public parks to have a "bachelors" section for males and a "family" section for families and single females.
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In public transportation conveyances, it is not considered proper for a male to take a seat next to an unrelated female. In recent years, many of these restrictions have been eased in major cities, but coffeehouses and some bars remain exclusively male domains.
Food in Daily Life. Turkish cuisine includes many different stews of vegetables and meat lamb and beef primarily ; borek , kebab , and dolma dishes; and a sourdough bread eaten with almost every meal. Kebab is the common word for meat roasted in pieces or slices on a skewer or as meatballs on a grill. Dolma is the generic name for dishes made of vegetables e. Turks are especially fond of eggplant.
In the winter, many Turks eat a breakfast of bread with hot soup. In the warmer seasons, they commonly eat bread and jam, hard- or soft-boiled eggs, a white cheese made from sheep's milk, salty olives, and warm milk or hot tea with milk.
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A typical noon meal consists of vegetable and meat stew with a side dish of rice or bulgar pilaf and salad, with fruit for desert. Borek or dolma may substitute for the stew. Sweet deserts, such as baklava, are served on special occasions. The evening meal is usually lighter, consisting of leftovers from noon or a kebab with salad. Ordinarily, only water is drunk with the noon and evening meals. Food preferences and preparations vary by region and ethnicity. For example, the Black Sea is noted for fish, especially anchovy, dishes, while the eastern region is noted for spicy foods.
Circassians are famous for preparing chicken in a walnut sauce, while Georgian cuisine is typified by thick corn bread and corn soup. Lahmacun , or Armenian pizza, originated in the southeastern provinces once occupied by Armenians. All cities have numerous restaurants and snack stands. Many specialize in a limited number of foods, such as kebabs, soups, meat wraps made with pide a flat bread , pastries, and fish.
Others offer a variety of meals, including stews, pilafs, vegetables, and deserts. Inexpensive restaurants cater to workingmen, who commonly eat only breakfast and the evening meal at home. Higher-class restaurants generally set aside a section for females and families. American fast-food chains have become popular in the large cities. The major food taboo in Turkey is pork, which is forbidden to Muslims. Although the Koran also forbids alcoholic beverages, many Turks drink beer, wine, and liquors. Certain segments of the Muslim population regard other foods as taboo even though their religion does not prohibit them.
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Members of the Alevi sect of Islam do not eat rabbit because it menstruates. Turks in the northwestern province of Balikesir avoid snails, claiming incorrectly that the Koran forbids their consumption. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Special dishes are associated with holy days and celebrations. In Gaziantep, yuvarlama a blend of ground meat, rice, chickpeas, onions, and spices served with yogurt is a special dish for the Feast of Ramadan at the end of the Islamic month of fasting. In some of the southern provinces the special meal for that Fishing is an important facet of the Turkish economy.
For the holy month of Ashure , which comes after the Feast of Ramadan, many households prepare a pudding called Ashure to share with guests, friends, and neighbors. According to tradition, Ashure must contain at least fifteen different ingredients, such as peas, beans, almonds, cereals, rice, raisins, rosewater, pomegranate seeds, orange peels, figs, and cinnamon.
Throughout much of Turkey, wedding soup, a preparation of lamb meat with bone, egg, lemon juice, flour, butter, and red pepper, is served at wedding celebrations. Carbonated drinks have become popular with young people, and beer gardens in major cities have become hangouts for men. Basic Economy. Turkey is self-sufficient in food production. Fishers, farmers, and animal husbandry workers produce a wide variety of fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and meat for consumers.
However, malnutrition affects some of the urban poor and small segments of the rural population in the southeastern region. In , agriculture contributed 15 percent to the gross national product and Turkey exports cereals, pulses, industrial crops, sugar, nuts, fresh and dried fruits, vegetables, olive oil, and livestock products. In the early s agricultural products accounted for 15 percent of total exports. However, if one includes cotton and wool, agriculture's contribution to total exports is even greater.
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Since , Turkey has liberalized its policy on food imports. Daily products and luxury food items, especially from European Union countries, are available in most large cities. Most farmers produce for both domestic consumption and sale. Very few are self-sufficient. The vast majority rely on a well-established network of local and regional markets as well as large wholesalers to sell their surplus product. They then buy food and manufactured items from the proceeds.
Land Tenure and Property. Between the s and , the government distributed more than three million hectares of mostly state land to landless peasants. Although no comprehensive property surveys have been conducted, it is believed that most farm families own some land. According to the data in a agricultural census, 78 percent of farms had five hectares or less and together accounted for 60 percent of all farmland.
Twenty-three percent of farms were between five and twenty hectares and accounted for 18 percent of all farmland. Fewer than 4 percent exceeded a hundred hectares, but they amounted to 15 percent of the farmland. Less than one-fifth of farmers lease or sharecrop the land they till. Sharecroppers generally receive half the crop, with the remainder going to landlords, who supply seed and fertilizer.
Most villages have common pastures for the residents' herd animals. In the past, southeastern Anatolia had feudal landlords who owned entire villages. Many large farms have been converted into modern agricultural enterprises that employ machinery, irrigation, and chemical fertilizers.
Such farms concentrate on high-value fruits and industrial crops and employ land-poor farmers. Since the s, the mechanization of agriculture has reduced the need for farm labor, causing many villagers to migrate to the cities. Major Industries. Turkey's economy is a mix of private and state economic enterprises SEEs. From A view of the ancient city wall surrounding the Midterranean city of Anlanya, Turkey.
Since that time, a policy of privatization of SEEs has been followed. Currently, factories produce a wide variety of products, including processed foods, textiles and footwear, iron and steel, chemicals, cement, fertilizers, kitchen appliances, radios, and television sets. Montage industries that utilize a combination of imported and domestic parts assemble cars, trucks, and buses as well as aircraft.