Glass ceiling research paper

They also have to spend a disproportionate amount of time validating their existence in the workplace. They are often aware that because they are perceived to represent their entire race, performing poorly will negatively contribute to the negative stereotypes attributed to their ethnic minority. Entering a work environment is different for ethnic minorities than it is for white men and women. There are often a multitude of factors that must be juggled just to achieve equal status to that of white employees.

The disadvantages that ethnic minorities experience in the workplace are prevalent from the first day on the job, and maybe even before. Bell and Nkomo pointed out various organizational-level barriers that exist for ethnic minorities in the workplace.

Glass Ceiling

These include 1 lack of mentorship, 2 unfair promotion and evaluation processes, and 3 segregation into staff -type jobs. Mentors are important in any large business environment.


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A mentor helps to increase self-confi dence, motivation, career skills, career enhancement, career planning, networking opportunities, and, perhaps most importantly, mentors reduce isolation. Mentors are most likely to have mentees who have similar backgrounds. This is perfectly understandable because people tend to sympathize with and coach those in similar situations or from similar backgrounds as themselves.

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A problem is that mentors may pass over a potential protege who belongs to an ethnic minority group because of racial stereotypes that may make the mentor see the minority as a risky protege. Many employees from ethnic minority groups find it difficult to find mentorship. Friedman and Carter found that 53 percent of National Black MBA Association members felt that they did not have the support of a mentor. Without equal access to mentors, ethnic minorities are without one of the most important aspects of successful career advancement.

It limits their networking opportunities, exposure within the company, and potential supporters. It also denies them the important basic advantages that a mentor provides as far as career planning and the transition into a new organization. Over the past 20 years, numerous studies have been done that show that white supervisors rank managers from ethnic minority groups below white managers in their evaluations Bell and Nkomo They rank them lower in terms of job performance and how they interact with other employees. Part of this is because of racial stereotypes.

If supervisors consider ethnic minority managers to be doing a fine job, then their performance is attributed to the support structure they have around them that makes their job easier. For whites, top performance is attributed to effort and competence.

Freakonomics Radio - After the Glass Ceiling, a Glass Cliff

As negative feedback builds, it has a snowball effect on African American managers as they lose their confidence and begin to question their own abilities. There are clear trends in the career paths of the vast majority of CEOs of large organizations. The critical career paths have historically been through marketing, finance, and operations. The people who head companies are often funneled through these departments.

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Collins has pointed out that African Americans have been relegated to racialized jobs outside of those departments that produce the most upper-level managers. She suggested that African Americans are often placed in jobs dealing with public relations, community relations, affirmative action, and equal employment opportunity.

Among 76 of the highest-ranking African American managers, she found that 66 percent held jobs that dealt with affirmative action or consumer issues. Because of the types of jobs that African American employees are often relegated to, it becomes more difficult for them to advance up the corporate ladder because they do not get experience in the most important functions. The glass ceiling concept for women and ethnic and racial minorities is hotly contested. Those who argue that it does not exist for women claim that women are not represented in upper management well because they put their families before their careers.

The argument against the glass ceiling concept as it concerns ethnic and racial minorities basically hinges on racial stereotypes. Opponents claim that groups like African Americans and Latinos are lazy and that they are not willing to do what it takes to get to the top. The argument backing the glass ceiling concept for women accepts that many women do choose to leave the workplace to make a family but that those who do not have suffered because of the common misconception and stereotypes surrounding all women.

From a capabilities perspective, it can be argued that the remit of HRM policy makers regarding the careers of women attempting to break through the glass ceiling needs to be broadened, particularly by those organisations not only wishing to enhance their corporate social responsibility with regards to existing and potential employees but also those wishing to deepen their understanding of workplace inequality.

This paper adds to our understanding of women's career journeys, and is likely to be of interest also to those researching the in areas of workplace equality and diversity and HRM policy and practice. Cornelius, N. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Cracking the glass ceiling paper aims to guide women to the top | University jobs

Please share your general feedback. You can start or join in a discussion here. Women are often subject to long work hours that creates an imbalance within the work-family schedule. The research also suggests, flexible work arrangements allow for the achievement of a healthy work and family balance. A difference has also been discovered in the cost and amount of effort in childbearing amongst women in higher skilled positions and roles, as opposed to women in lower-skilled jobs.

This difference leads to women delaying and postponing goals and career aspirations over a number of years. Also, the Deloitte Touche , a professional hiring service firm, confirmed that they had recorded dropout rates in each entering class of hires and reported that indeed women's rates were very high compared to males due to mother- and family-related responsibilities. The term concrete floor has been used to refer to the minimum number or the proportion of women necessary for a cabinet or board of directors to be perceived as legitimate.

Few women tend to reach positions in upper echelon and organizations are largely still almost exclusively lead by men. Studies have shown that the glass ceiling still exists in varying levels in different nations and regions across the world. It is clear that even though societies differ from one another by culture, beliefs and norms, they hold similar expectations of women and their role in the society.

These female stereotypes are often reinforced in societies that have traditional expectations of women.

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Study: Gender bias is real, but women's choices add to the 'glass ceiling'

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a metaphor.

For more information about the barrier that prevents minorities from reaching the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, see Gender pay gap. Metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that keeps a given group from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy. It has been suggested that Second-generation gender bias be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since November See also: Gender pay gap and Gender pay gap in the United States.

Main article: Glass escalator. Washington, D. Department of Labor, November , p. Department of Labor, March John Wiley and Sons.

Background and statement of the research problem:

Ashgate, New York: HarperBusiness. Retrieved Faculty of Health and Behavioral Sciences. Human Resource Management. Social Forces. London: The Industrial Society, , p. Office of the Secretary. Retrieved 9 April George Sand. Yale University Press. Pelican Bay Post. May BBC News. Magazine World.


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