Papers written by sigmund freud
After having defined the most important terms, we can now dare to take a look at them working together. But few do know that Freud invented them very lately: he was already over 65 years old and had written all his major works before he conceptualised the human mind with the terms mentioned above.
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The rest of this chapter will therefore mostly refer to Illustration 2. The illustration shows the mental processes of an individual which express themselves in what we call consciousness and the outer factors that influence the process and provide the Id and the Super-Ego with input. The two black arrows, pointing at the oval area in the middle, represent the two forces that influence the Ego. The first one is the Id, symbolising the dark, animal side of the mind, always longing for satisfaction or destruction.
The Id acts according to the Pleasure Principle, following the instincts and drives that are inborn in every human being. The second force is the Super-Ego. Its geometrical opposition equals its functional antagonism: it is kind of a moral instance, acting in accordance with the rules the individual has learnt.
If the individual does not comply with these rules, it generates a bad conscience. When in charge, the Super-Ego makes us perfectionists that are uptight and demand too much of themselves. Taking a closer look at the Super-Ego, these factors would be mother and father for instance. They educated the individual and shaped it with their ideals and moral concepts.
The same applies to friends, neighbours and the rest of the list on the right hand side. That way, they support the Super-Ego in its function as a moral instance as well as feeding the Id, providing it with numerous stimuli like making proposals or simply a good looking outward appearance. The Ego, situated between these two forces and the reality, has to cope with the demands of either side.
It has to mediate between them and find compromises, according to the Reality-Principle. The last chapter of the theoretical part is therefore devoted to this part of his work, giving a short overview of its most important facts. Freud claimed that all human beings are born with certain instincts, showing a natural tendency to satisfy their biologically determined needs for food, shelter and warmth.
He believed the maturing of every person followed the same patterns, consisting of distinctive stages, the most important ones of which are going to be explained shortly in the following paragraphs. According to Freud, sexual life does not start with puberty, it starts with birth.
When the first teeth appear, the child already shows first sadistic impulses. In the following 18 months, these impulses grow stronger: from one and a half years till the age of three, satisfaction is acquired by aggression and taking pleasure in gaining control over the function of excretion. That way, the parent of the same sex becomes a rival, the superiority of which lets the children fear possible punishment and leads to a bad conscience for their own thoughts.
When the girl realises that she, just like her mother, lacks a penis, she blames her mother for having castrated her. The girl wishes for the father to share his penis with her, longing for copulation. Similar to the Oedipus-Complex, the Electra-Complex is solved by identification.
The more the girl identifies with her mother, the more likely it gets for her to marry someone like her father in later life. Puberty finally sets an end to the distinguishable phases of psychosexual development. The target of sexuality has finally changed to reproduction. Having introduced the reader to the most vital ideal and theories of Psychoanalysis, the next logical step is its practical application.
First of all, the Analyst has to decide what the aim of the work should be: to analyse the author, the text or both. This assignment is only meant to show the reader some fundamental mechanisms of Psychoanalysis and their application on a literary text. It would unquestionably be inadequate for its objective to collect background-information of the author in the dimension described above.
It is not intended to analyse the author, consequently analysis will be limited to the text itself. She has four younger brothers. When she was five years old, her father, Frank Duffy, got a job as a fitter with English Electric and the family moved to Staffordshire. Her father was socially and politically active; he was even a Labour Party candidate in and he also managed Stafford Football Club in his spare time.
In the following three years she was at St Joseph's convent school in the same city. From to she went to Stafford High School for girls. She had her first pamphlet of poems, Fleshweathercock, published by Outposts in when she was One year later she went to Liverpool University to be near to Adrian Henri and left it in , completing her B.
In the following years she worked for Granada Television until she moved to London in where she lived until In the early s she took up freelance writing, and she held a C. Day Lewis Fellowship which enabled her to work as a writer in residence in East End schools between and She encouraged younger poets on Arvon Foundation courses. It was on one of these courses where she met her future partner, Jackie Kay.
She has been poetry editor of the literary magazine Ambit since , written several plays for radio and stage and won numerous prizes such as the first prize in the national poetry competition sponsored by the BBC in , the Eric Gregory Award from the British Society of Authors in and the first prize in the Peterloo Poets competition in Four Years later Carol was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Letters and she was widely regarded as a leading contender for an exciting new "people's" Poet Laureate which made her into a very public figure. Nevertheless, Prime Minister Tony Blair evidently did not like the idea of promoting a homosexual woman and opted for a less adventurous candidate, namely Andrew Motion.
She currently resides in Manhattan with her partner, Jackie Kay, where she is working as a university professor. Jack has treated women badly ever since and has recently killed and raped a local girl. He dumped her body in the canal after the incident, but it is debatable as to whether the murder or the rape was carried out first. The poem consists of eight stanzas, has no rhyme but is full of both hidden and open metaphors and uses the dramatic monologue, a specialty  of C.
As the text is rather difficult, the reader will be provided with explanations for the most complicated passages of the text before entering a deeper interpretational level. Even the advanced learner or a native speaker may come across some things that seem odd or not understandable.
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The following list includes the most important items. Illustration 3 shows Henry Winkler, wearing a ducktail. It is now very important to understand that the ducktail was much more than only a haircut:.
The ducktail hair style contributed to the term "greasers. To insure that the hair was just so, the wearer often touched up the DA many times during the day by running his greased comb through it. Dean was both an actor and a musician who also owned a sausage brand. The first idea would of course be a sour kind of wine.
Sigmund Freud: Life, Work & Theories
But a research on the internet did not reveal any wine of such name. The more reasonable possibility is a whisky brand. Whisky sour is a very common drink and as there actually is a Whisky of that name  we will assume Woodbine to be a whisky. She died in , convicted for having murdered her boyfriend David Blakely. Ellis owned a bar, where she also got to know her lover. She was a 28 year-old blonde and attractive girl. He has drunk enough to twist the songs lyrics, but nevertheless he really feels cool.
This is underlined by the previous sentences. As the most complicated pictures and references have now been clarified, the analysis itself can be carried out.
We will first approach the story in a linear way and afterwards draw further psychoanalytical conclusions that concern the text as a whole. Since this chapter only deals with the poem itself, in-text-citations will be used and the lines referred to will simply be given in brackets. The first two lines of the poem give us an idea what the first person narrator looks like and introduce us to his character.
The second stanza introduces the reader to the way Jack deals with girls. As he seems to be a fairground worker  , he has lots of possibilities to come into contact with people. The actor Marlon Brando is very similar to Jimmy Dean, who in fact tried to copy him. Jack thinks he could have any woman he wants. For him they are objects. He also buys every girl a goldfish, or at least it seems so, because the fish appears three times in the poem cf.
Ironically it is not this town that killed him, but it is him that killed a part of this town. But the paragraph is not about the killing, yet. It simply articulates Jacks indifference. He does not care that he is good-looking, lucky and intelligent cf. He simply does what he likes and that way throws away his talents. The only thing he wants seems to be sex, but as the girl rejects him 36 , he gets brutal.
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This may be interpreted in many ways: either he wants to emphasize his indifference towards his brutality and that way stress his manliness or he really does not care about what is happening because it is already perfectly normal for him. The sixth stanza is a very important one as it clarifies why Jack has always treated women badly: when he was younger, he walked in on his mother and the landlord cf. This experience traumatised him. Not being able to keep his hatred to himself he transfered it on his general attitude towards women cf. He is totally unable to trust women anymore, so they have to suffer in compensation for his emotional uncertainty.
perfcestkuda.tk The next paragraph describes the killing and the rape and can therefore be considered the most important part of the poem. One thump did, then I was on her, giving her everything I had. Nevertheless, he shows small but noteworthy signs of a bad conscience. Freud's knowledge was incredibly useful to many people during his own lifetime, as well as afterwards, in that it held many different approaches to understanding the human mind.
He talked of egos and of our inner psyche. He defined id as the subconscious area of our persona which maintains our instinctive biological needs and urges us to eat, to sleep, to urinate and more Nevertheless, Freudian theory seems to be criticized endlessly, especially with respect to such notions as Freud's " Oedipus complex " which suggests that everything an individual does is linked somehow to their sexuality, and that feelings of sexuality are frequently directed at our parents.
While Sigmund Freud's theories regarding the ideas of ego and id are quite remarkable in distinguishing between different aspects of the human mind, other theories are still highly subjective and open to interpretation, as is obvious from the amount of attention and criticism his work attracts.